Macronutrients

Part 2- Fats

Fats were once arguably the most criticised and almost demonised macronutrient. Because the majority of our clients goals are centred around reducing body fat there already is a negative stigma around just the word fat. We are wanting to lose fat, so why would you eat more of it? Some objections we hear:

“Fat makes you fat”

“Fat is the devil”

These and a whole host of Macro Myths surrounding Fat are not true. It is easy to forgive people who have a negative feeling towards consuming fats when “diet foods” in shops across the world offer thousands of low-Fat products & fat-free products. Added to this, fats coverage in the media both past and present leads people to wrongly assume that we need to remove fat from our diets. You can gain body fat from having a hyper caloric diet which is eating more calories than your body needs. This over consumption will cause your body to store fat rather than burn it. This chronic over feeding will undoubtedly increase your body fat. But that does mean it is the consumption of fat that is doing this.

Do we have to eat less fat?

In most cases, yes….Why? Fats yield 9 calories per gram compared to protein and carbs containing 4 calories per gram and as we know to lose body fat we need to be in a calorie deficit

Do I need to eat fat? Yes! we need essential fatty acids which the body cannot make itself. These are essential for bodily functions such as regulating hormonal production, absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and maintaining cell membrane health.

 

Types of Fat:-

Saturated Fat

According to the British Heart Foundation eating a diet high in saturated fat is associated with raised levels of non-HDL (bad) cholesterol. This is linked to an increased risk of heart and circulatory disease. That’s why official recommendations emphasise the importance of reducing saturated fat in our diets. 

All fat sources contain a mixture of all three fats so its almost impossible to totally remove but in our opinion if you have a balance of fats in your diet, control your calories and exercise regularly the risks are minimal. Chronic overeating can cause a multitude of issues. Most saturated food sources come from animal products like meats, eggs, butter and some plant sources like coconut oil.

 

Monounsaturated Fat

Sources of these fats come from olive oil, nuts & nut butters, avocado and seeds and they help protect our hearts by maintaining levels of good HDL cholesterol while reducing levels of bad LDL cholesterol. These sources can be very easy to over eat and this is where – if your goal is to reduce body fat – you need to pay attention to quantities. 

 

Polyunsaturated Fat

The body cannot produce some of these polyunsaturated fats. Two major types of these fats are Omega-3 and Omega-6 which are essential fatty acids (EFAs) and must be included in you nutrition regime. 

Omega-6 fats are found in vegetable oils, such as: rapeseed, corn, sunflower and some nuts. Omega-3 fats are found in oily fish, such as: kippers, herring, trout, sardines, salmon and mackerel. Most of us get enough omega-6 in our diet, but we’re advised to have more omega-3 by eating at least 2 portions of fish a week, including 1 portion of oily fish. Vegetable sources of omega-3 fats are not thought to have the same benefits on heart health as those found in fish. This is where supplementation can play an important role for health benefits. The research around fish oils is vast and some benefits include reduced risk of heart disease, reduction in joint and muscle pain and improved cognitive function. 

 

Trans fats

Any processed foods (‘man-made’) are difficult for the body to efficiently breakdown and this is why we suggest and recommend basing a diet around whole foods. Trans fats are used for a host of reasons such as extending the shelf life of a product. However this comes at a cost of health issues. The government recommends that adults should not have more than 5g of trans fats a day. Trans fats can also be found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. Hydrogenated vegetable oil must be declared on a food’s ingredients list if present. Like saturated fats, trans fats can raise cholesterol levels in the blood.

 

What is the right number?

We would be lying if we knew because everyone is different. This is why we take a tailored approach to our clients that evolves and grows. It is not a “one size fits all” approach. There will be consistencies that pertain from client to client, but through consistent monitoring and adapting through trial and error we can best determine our recommendations for a clients progress.

 

Article written by Greg Burns

Personal Trainer London

 

Cable crossover

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Chest Supported Row

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Face Pull

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cable Lateral raise

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Dumbbell Lateral raise

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Dumbbell Shoulder Press

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Single arm row

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Fats

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Straight arm pull down

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Pull Ups

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Seated Row

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Rfe split squat

Find yourself in a staggered stance approximately in front of a step which should be no greater than 6” high, place your toes on the step and your front foot should be flat. This would be your start and end position for every repetition.

You’re going to allow your rear knee to move towards the floor, whilst your front knee is moving in a motion forward towards your toes.

When your rear knee is close to touching the ground, pause then push through both legs to reverse the motion to the start position.

*If your front heel comes off the ground during your repetitions, adjust your stance.

Starting with bodyweight is appropriate for many on a RFE, or holding on to a squat stand to aid balance.

Repeat for the stated reps in your program before switching sides.

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Lat Pull Down

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Push ups

Starting in a prone position, set your hand just outside shoulder width at a 45 degree angle relative to your torso.

Bring your knees and your hips off the ground, so that your body is in neutral (this is your start and end position for every rep).

Press into the ground until your arms are fully extended, then lower your body in a controlled manner towards the floor.

*Your body should be moving in a synchronised manner.

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Cable Press

Pick the handles and take a seat on your bench, your arms should be in a neutral position.

Extend your arms, so your fist is approximately the same height as your armpit but now rotate so that you’re in a pronated grip (this is your start and end position for every rep).

In a slow controlled manner, you’re going to move your upper arm towards the bench. The upper arm should be in approximately a 45 degree relative to your torso. When you’ve reached a point when your upper arm can move no further, press the handles in the opposite direction of the bench until your arm are fully extended.

*Your bench should be central of the cable station.

*Your handles should be should height

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Cable Fly

Pick the handles and take a seat on your bench, your arms should be in a neutral position.

Extend your arms, so your fist is approximately the same height as your armpit. Your elbow should also be slightly bent (this is your start and end position for every rep).

In a slow controlled manner, you’re going to move your upper arm in a circular movement towards the pulley, before returning to your start/end position.

*Your bench should be central of the cable station.

*Your handles should be shoulder height

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Incline Machine

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Dumbbell Chest Press

Sit on the edge of the bench, feet approximately shoulder-width with the dumbbells resting on your thighs then lie back so that you’re in a supine position on your bench.

Your dumbbells should be above your elbows, whilst your upper arm should be approximately 45 degrees to your torso (this is your start and end position for every rep), palms in the same direction of your feet.

Press the dumbbells towards the ceiling, until your arms are fully extended then lower the dumbbells in a slow controlled manner to your start position.

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Change This to exorcise title

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BarBell Chest Press

Sit on the edge of the bench, feet approximately shoulder-width, lie back so you’re in a supine position. Your eyes should be directly underneath the barbell.

Place your hands on the barbell with an overhand grip, approximately 1.5x shoulder width.

Extend your arms to un rack the bar, slowly set the bar to a position perpendicular of your shoulders (this is your start and end position for every rep).

Lower the barbell in a controlled manner towards your chest, your arms should be approximately 45 degrees to your torso. When you’ve reached a point when the barbell can get no lower press the barbell towards the ceiling, until your arms fully extended.

*If you’re training in a facility where you can set the hooks to your preferred height, choose a height in which when you’re un-racking the bar you’re not protracting/over extending to remove the bar.

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Can you spare us 2 minutes for some market research? If so we would like to offer you a weeks free training at the end

Y Raise

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Leg Extension

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Cable Extension

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Ham curl

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DUMBBELL TRICEP EXTENSION

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Reverse Curl

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Zotttman Curl

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Hammer Curl

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Cable Curl

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Preacher Curl

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Spider curl

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Seated DB curl

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Step Ups

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Split squat

Find yourself in a staggered stance approximately a step forward/back difference, the front foot should be flat and the rear foot should be on the toes (mobility permitting). This would be your start and end position for every repetition.

You’re going to allow your rear knee to move towards the floor, whilst your front knee is moving in a motion forward towards your toes.

When your rear knee is close to touching the ground, pause then push through both legs to reverse the motion to the start position.

Repeat for the stated reps in your program before switching sides.

*If your front heel comes off the ground during your repetitions, adjust your stance.

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glute bridge

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Hip Bridge

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45 Back Extension

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RDL

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Trap bar deadlift

Stand in the middle of the hex/trap bar with your feet in approximately a shoulder width stance.

Maintaining a neutral spine, in a synchronised manner bring your hips towards your calves, whilst also allowing your knees to move in the same direction as your toes. You should be able to grab the handles of the bar, if you’re unable to, raise the bar by placing blocks underneath the plates. This is your start and end position

Take a tight grip of the handles and stand, reverse the movement by allowing your knees to move forward and hips down.

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Alternating lunges

With the dumbbell in your hands and to your sides, find yourself in a position where feet are approximately hip width apart

You’re going to take approximately a dynamic step forward, allowing your front knee to move forward whilst the rear knee moves towards the floor. Without pausing in the bottom position, push through the ground to return to a standing position. This is the start and end of every repetition.

Repeat for the stated reps in your program before switching sides.

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Goblet squat

Hold the Dumbbell in a vertical manner just below your chin, your feet should be approximately shoulder width apart. This will be your start and end position for every repetition.

Start the movement by allowing your knees to move in the same direction of your toes, whilst your hip is moving towards the platform in a synchronised manner. Once you’ve reach the bottom, pause then push through your legs to return to your starting position.

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Hack Squat

Load the weight plates on to the machine, then place your shoulders underneath the pads whilst setting your feet on the platform approximately shoulder-width apart (this is your start and end position for every rep).

Your feet should be a in position which allows you to push through the centre of your feet.

Extend your knees, and take the hack squat off the lock setting. Start the movement by allowing your knees to move in the same direction of your toes, whilst your hip is moving towards the platform in a synchronised manner. Once you’ve reached the bottom, pause then press through the platform to return to your starting/end position.

Repeat for the stated reps in your program before switching sides.

*Focus on keeping your lower back on the back pad, if your back comes of the pad you’ve reached your end range-of-motion.

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back Squat

Have the bar behind your neck, resting on your shoulders.

Your feet should be approximately shoulder width apart. This will be your start and end position for every repetition.

Start the movement by allowing your knees to move in the same direction of your toes, whilst your hip is moving towards the platform in a synchronised manner. Once you’ve reach the bottom, pause then push through your legs to return to your starting position.

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